The five part version of the DLNA Network Device Interoperability Guidelines is outlined as follows:
Part 1: Architectures and Protocols
The Interoperability Guidelines consists of five parts covering Architecture and Protocols, Media Formats, Link Protection, DRM Interoperability Systems and Device Profiles. It provides vendors with the information needed to build interoperable networked platforms and devices for the digital home. The necessary standards and technologies are available now to enable products to be built for networked entertainment centric usages. However, standards and technologies need to be clarified and options limited to ensure interoperability. The DLNA Home Networked Device Interoperability Guidelines fulfill that role.
The Interoperability Guidelines are based on an architecture that defines interoperable components for devices and software infrastructure. It covers physical media, network transports, device discovery and control, media management and control, media formats, media transport protocols, and remote user interfaces. Table 1 shows a summary of the key functional components and technology ingredients that are covered by the Interoperability Guidelines.
Table 1 — Key Technology Ingredients
Ethernet, 802.11 (including Wi-Fi Direct), MoCA, HPNA and Bluetooth
Device Discovery and Control
UPnP* Device Architecture v1.0
Media Management and Control
UPnP AV and UPnP Printer:1
Required and Optional Format Profiles
HTTP (Mandatory) and RTP (Optional)
Remote User Interfaces
Part 2: Media Format Profiles
This document describes DLNA Media Format profiles applicable to the DLNA Device Classes.. Media Format profiles are defined for each of the following media classes: Audio, Image, and AV. In addition, Profile ID values that identify media collections and printer XHTML documents are also introduced.
It is envisioned that in the home network environment, devices will be capable of exchanging content items that originate from different sources. Content items will typically come encoded in different formats. The term "format" designates the compression and encoding tools utilized to generate the binary instance of a content item, which will be eventually exchanged over the home network using streaming or file transfer protocols. Examples of formats include MPEG-2, MPEG-4 (Parts 2 and 10), WMV and others for video; or MP3, AAC, WMA and others for audio.
Formats alone however, include as part of their specifications, multiple parameters, features and tools which can be used in a myriad of combinations to generate content binaries. In this document, the notion of a Format Profile is introduced to identify a particular suitable combination of format parameters which define a way for representing content binaries. A format like MPEG-2 for example, can have multiple profiles depending on selections for the companion audio, the system-layer multiplexing specifications, allowed frame resolutions, allowed aspect ratios, allowed bit rates, etc.
This document provides a list of Format Profiles for image, audio, and AV formats defined for use in DLNA devices. For each particular format profile, this document defines a Profile ID text token to be used during the DLNA media discovery and media transfer operations. The Profile ID is exposed in a server's Content Directory Service (CDS) to signal potential networked players or renderers the existence of a content item with particular coding and compression features defined precisely by the item's Profile ID. This document also describes the uses of Format Profiles which define media collections and printer XHTML documents.
The number of potential combinations for suitable profiles becomes large rather quickly, as evidenced by the long profile lists observed in the different clauses and subclauses of this document. Consequently, this document introduces the notion of mandatory profiles, supported by all devices, as a means to provide baseline content interoperability in the home. Servers will be capable of exposing and transferring mandatory profiles while players and renderers will be capable of decoding and rendering the mandatory profiles.
All profiles not defined as mandatory become optional in the home. An implementer can choose whether to support optional profiles. When supported and used with DLNA’s discover y and transfer methods, it will follow the guideline provisions for encoding and exposing optional profiles.
Part 3: Link Protection
This document includes the DLNA Link Protection guidelines, which are an extension of the DLNA guidelines. DLNA Link Protection is defined as the protection of a content stream between two devices on a DLNA network from illegitimate observation or interception using the protocols defined within this document.
Content protection is an important mechanism for ensuring that commercial content is protected from piracy and illegitimate redistribution. Link Protection is a technique that enables distribution of protected commercial content on a home network, thus resulting in greater consumer flexibility while still preserving the rights of copyright holders and content providers.
The guidelines in this document reference existing technologies for Link Protection and provide mechanisms for interoperability between different implementations as well as integration with the DLNA architecture.
Part 4: DRM Interoperability Solutions (DIS)
This part specifies DLNA guidelines for DRM interoperability. They are based on so named DLNA DRM Interoperability Solutions (DIS), which are defined as methods to enable the secure transfer and use of protected commercial content among different implementations on network media devices. This content could be protected by different content protection technologies, in this part are referred to as DRMs in short.
The guidelines are not intended to replace or disable other interoperability mechanisms that could already be in place, e.g. DLNA Link Protection guidelines or mechanisms provided by underlying DRMs.
Part 5: Device Profiles
This document specifies guidelines that define various DLNA Device Profiles. A Device Profile is a collection of DLNA capabilities and features within a DLNA device. For a device to be compliant with a Device Profile, it has to conform to all of the guidelines listed for that Device Profile.
In practice, Device Profiles reference existing optional or recommended DLNA guidelines, that enable certain features, and makes those DLNA guidelines mandatory within the context of a Device Profile. A Device Profile can also provide some additional guidelines that complement or modify existing DLNA guidelines for a feature.
A particular type of DLNA Device Profile is the Commercial Video Profile (CVP). A CVP Device Profile is an extension of the DLNA guidelines that will allow content from service providers and multichannel video programming distributers to be distributed on the DLNA network. DLNA Commercial Video Profiles (CVPs) are defined as Device Profiles that consistently enable commercial content that enters the home network through a gateway device via an interface to a commercial content service provider. Since different regions of the world have different requirements for commercial content, there are multiple CVPs defined.
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